In summary, cobalt is an essential trace mineral for both rumen bacteria and beef and dairy animals. This is because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B 12 which is synthesized by rumen bacteria. Vitamin B 12 is an essential cofactor for optimizing energy metabolism in both rumen bacteria and ruminant animals. Agri-King’s vitamin trace mineral products such as Dairy Premium, Dairy Max, LDH Fortifier and Beef Multi-factors all have been formulated with optimal levels of supplemental cobalt to optimize digestion efficiency in the rumen, energy metabolism in the liver and ultimately gain and production efficiency in beef and dairy cattle. AK
In propionic acidemia , a rare inherited genetic disorder, propionate acts as a metabolic toxin in liver cells by accumulating in mitochondria as propionyl-CoA and its derivative, methylcitrate, two tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibitors. Propanoate is metabolized oxidatively by glia , which suggests astrocytic vulnerability in propionic acidemia when intramitochondrial propionyl-CoA may accumulate. Propionic acidemia may alter both neuronal and glial gene expression by affecting histone acetylation.   When propionic acid is infused directly into rodents' brains, it produces reversible behavior (., hyperactivity , dystonia , social impairment, perseveration ) and brain changes (., innate neuroinflammation, glutathione depletion) that may be used as a means to model autism in rats.