Estradiol type implants will improve gains and efficiency on pasture, as long as pasture quality is adequate and stocking density is optimum to allow gains of at least lbs per day. Implanted livestock will consume more forage, and therefore pasture management is critical. If cattle are to be placed on feed from the backgrounding period through to finishing, it may be necessary to use an estradiol type implant followed with an androgenic type of implant. If the cattle are only on feed for the finishing period, they may be implanted with an androgenic type. The androgenic type (TBA) implant is most effective when it is used in conjunction with animals receiving high-energy rations (more than 80% concentrate barley). Therefore, it is typically used as the "terminal" implant in the finishing phase in the feedlot.
Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone esters for their muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects.  Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone and its esters as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act .  Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada  and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom .  Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia .  The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , a metenolone ester, and a trenbolone ester. 
The use of supplemental growth hormones is controversial. The benefits of using growth hormones includes improved feed efficiency, carcass quality, and rate of muscle development. The cattle industry takes the position that the use of growth hormones allows plentiful meats to be sold for affordable prices. Conversely, there exists customer concern about growth hormone use being linked to a number of human health problems. However, there have been insufficient studies to prove or disprove these concerns.  Growth hormones are synthetically created but testing cannot distinguish between artificial hormones and those naturally produced by the animal itself. Using hormones in beef cattle costs $ and adds between 40 and 50 lb (18 and 23 kg) to the weight of a steer at slaughter, for a return of at least $25.